Industrialization, urbanization, information technology, is the trend of social development, it completely changed the social and cultural ecology and lifestyle. In such a trend, it is a great impact on the traditional culture.
Realizing Legal Protection is the Key to Sustainable Development of Intangible Cultural Heritage. An important question now is how to use the law. The use of laws to protect the intangible cultural heritage, not only to implement the immaterial cultural heritage law, but also consider how to administrative law, economic law and other laws to carry out specific protection.
Each national non-representative project has developed a conservation plan at the time of declaration, and the national laws and regulations also provide for the protection of these projects. How are these plans and regulations implemented, to establish an assessment system, to self-assessment based on the release of assessment reports, to accept social supervision. After the assessment of the project, how to protect the transmission, but also the need for dynamic monitoring
Soy sauce dip glutinous rice, flower knife cut Zongye, spices marinated pork, a family around a pot of raw materials wrapped dumplings, used to wrap dumplings line is best cotton cotton gloves pull out the line;
Incense in front of the grass, the bed hanging sachet, the child's forehead sticky yellow crown king, there are boats on the canal.
This is the 20-year-old Guo Yi Cheng memory in the northeast of the Dragon Boat Festival. However, such a Dragon Boat Festival can only be in his memory, or all the beautiful left only dumplings, "but also commercial mall in the mall, no longer a family sitting around the ridge leaves, the process of selecting the rope The ".
Lunar New Year in May fifth is the Dragon Boat Festival, in accordance with traditional customs, in this day, people want to race dragon boat, inserted Ai grass, eat dumplings, a variety of commemorative activities. In 2006, approved by the State Council, the Dragon Boat Festival was included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
However, the reporter visited the discovery, for most people, the Dragon Boat Festival all the traditional customs drifting away, the festival left only to eat dumplings so simple means.
Stay in the memory of the Dragon Boat Festival
On the eve of the Dragon Boat Festival this year, the reporter in the Sina Forum, West Power Rui think forums around the different Dragon Boat Festival folk activities, received nearly 100 reply, the most is to eat dumplings, followed by the race dragon boat, a small amount of reply mentioned When the child hanging sachet, tied Hua Hua line, inserted willow grass and other grass.
Guo Yi's childhood is spent in the northeast of the grandmother's home. In his hometown, the Dragon Boat Festival is called May Festival or May 5, "If you are not a school to learn Qu Yuan, it is not aware of this holiday relationship with Qu Yuan because there is no river, we do not race dragon boat, but other customs But very rich. "Guo Yi Cheng told reporters about his memory of the Dragon Boat Festival:
"Dragon Boat Festival morning to get up early, go out on the dew and robbery Artemisia. After going home, use mugwort water, and then the mackerel sun up, hanging on the door. The door also inserted a small broom, small sword A lot of things in the morning to eat dumplings and eggs, eggs must eat two, specifically why I do not know.
"The hands and neck to the Department of lines, you can also wrapped around the fingers on the first rain, the multicolored lines should be cut, thrown into the river.
"Waist to hang the sachet, a small broom and a lot of jewelry - in general, men hanging on the waist, women can also wear a balm on the neck. Grandma told me that the sachet is a young woman to do In my grandmother 's age, men and women have to make a big belt.I asked my grandmother did not, my grandmother said she was more rebellious, refused to belt, because too tight.
"Adults will give children to buy windmills, gourds and other color mascot, children to take in the hands and hanging at home.
"The dumplings in the northeast region, when I was young, only jujube stuffing and no stuffing pure rice, to dipped in sugar. Dumplings are their own bags, eat the most 'hate' process is Pa Zuozhu Ye, because Rice is very sticky, their home to do the dumplings are still large, will be covered with hands have to wash ... ... grew up after the school to sell all the meat dumplings, probably the supermarket to do bad, that taste very strange, so more Want to have been eating for many years did not eat dumplings, and do not say the Dragon Boat Festival.
Not only in Guo Yi's home, in the old Beijing, the Dragon Boat Festival is also a more important festival. Nearly 80 years old, living in Beijing Nancheng Zhao Fucheng uncle told reporters that in this day, people want to join the grass, eat dumplings, drink male wine, "20 years ago, every Dragon Boat Festival, every family to insert a Wormwood, but now do not know where to buy wormwood .In the past, there are customs around the Dragon Boat Festival, then they are doing, but now we do not even buy buy, let alone do their own "
Speaking of multicolored rope, Zhao Fucheng sighed and said: "A few days ago, grandson called me, asked what Dragon Boat Festival folk products, he wanted to buy some given to foreign friends.I told him to use colorful braided bracelet bracelet, Key ring is very meaningful, but the grandson did not find a long time to find, and finally bought online.
Through the search, the reporter found on the Taobao multicolored rope and other related products Dragon Boat Festival, and the store asked, and some said, "Now there is no business, even if the Dragon Boat Festival sell in general, no business this year," some "That is, the Dragon Boat Festival to sell a little more, but not the main business of these, there are other jewelry."
June 7, reporters in Beijing Chaoyang District, the major supermarket visits found that the Dragon Boat Festival approaching, the dumplings in the supermarket dazzling array of dumplings filled with supermarkets refrigerator container, waiting for the buyer. "Every year to engage in activities to sell dumplings, the other those sachets, multicolored rope are not sold, because the people buy very few." Supermarket staff told reporters.
Reporters in the street encountered a middle-aged man selling lavender sachet, he just introduced "can be placed in the toilet, kitchen or wardrobe can pest control."
"Dragon Boat Festival unique flavor of the traditional folk is less and less, and now almost become a simple dumplings festival.Even so, now young people even dumplings will not package, but before everyone should own package dumplings. Some businesses in order to increase sales, mostly in the taste of dumplings on the article, dumplings who do not have the folk culture. "Zhao Fucheng complain to reporters.
In addition to the above more popular customs, there are local customs around the Dragon Boat Festival. In Beijing, the University of Cheng Fei told reporters that the custom of Shandong Weifang home is the Dragon Boat Festival to see the girl, "the day the parents will buy a gift to go married daughter's house to eat reunion dinner, to see her daughter in the husband's family was good, but now this Custom is criticized by some people as 'downhill', which makes it hard to understand. Now, there are some families to keep this tradition, and some do not read early. "
And identity does not match the "thin"
"Dragon Boat Festival is a protection of the festival, more like the ancient children's day." Qinling is the Dalian City drama studio deputy director, researcher, served as the Dalian City non-assessment experts, "Dragon Boat Festival and other traditional festivals happy auspicious, pray The atmosphere of Sinafu is different, and the evil is the key word of the Dragon Boat Festival.
Qinling said that in the traditional customs, because May is poison month, five days is poison day, five days at noon is poison, the "three drugs" at the end. Dragon Boat Festival is also called "May end". May is the beginning of the hot days, five snakes began to active, demons and monsters will be rampant, which will give people, especially to the cynical and no resistance to the child disaster, so this day to focus on the child disaster and anti-virus.
This argument is closely related to the long farming culture of the Chinese nation. Qin Ling told reporters that in the civilian population of life and health is still a lack of scientific understanding and grasp, usually in particular, some of the festival to avoid evil is particularly important, so the people always pay attention to the Dragon Boat Festival, although not emphasize the ritual of the festival, but the natural Fear and respect are from the heart.
So, during the Dragon Boat Festival, to avoid the evil handmade jewelry will be popular up. As early as the Eastern Han Dynasty, scholars should Shao wrote the "style through" will record the customs of the colorful rope, "May 5, with colorful silk arm, the name of longevity, a continued life, , A five-color line, a Zhu Su, the provision of troops and ghosts, life is not disease plague.
It is undeniable that the Dragon Boat Festival is a unique meaning of the festival, both warm and unrestrained side, there are dignified side of the dignified. Dragon's lively and ritual Qu Yuan's dignified, so that this holiday full of meaning, value, impact can not be underestimated.
Therefore, the Dragon Boat Festival since 2008 has been listed as national statutory holidays, shared by the people; in May 2006 the State Council will be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list; September 2009, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization And approved the Chinese Dragon Boat Festival included in the world intangible cultural heritage, becoming China's first selected non-heritage festival, which has an unusual value.
It is reported that the Dragon Boat Festival selected "human intangible cultural heritage representative list" reason is because it is China's traditional festivals, so far has more than 2,500 years of history. From the evil spoils of evil habits of the festival derived from the colorful rituals, recreational, health and other civil activities, mainly to worship Qu Yuan, commemorate Wu Zixu, inserted Artemisia, hanging iris, drink male rice wine, eat dumplings, dragon boat race, in addition to five drugs The The activities vary slightly from region to region. The Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional festival that embodies the unique national spirit and rich cultural connotation, which has a great influence on Chinese folk life.
But at present, the Dragon Boat Festival "identity", and its "slimming" for the dumplings of the reality of some discrepancies.
Many of the folklore in the Dragon Boat Festival, especially the festivals, are 'forgotten', which is related to the process of accelerating urbanization. As the product of the agricultural society, the initial form and content of the Dragon Boat Festival are inseparable from the agricultural activities. Rural population into a large number of urban, urban life, a high degree of modernization, farming civilization is gradually replaced by industrial civilization. "Beijing engaged in folk culture for many years, the media Yao Jian told reporters," the city is in addition to the building is the street, In addition to steel is reinforced, there is no gap can be inserted in the city of grass, hanging calamus. This seems to eat dumplings Dragon Boat Festival has become the most convenient and quickest way.
The need for the rule of law
In order to more effectively protect the intangible cultural heritage such as the Dragon Boat Festival, in 2011, China began to implement the "People's Republic of China intangible cultural heritage law."
The promulgation and implementation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Act means that China has established the legal basis for the preservation of traditional festivals by establishing the status of traditional festivals as an intangible cultural heritage, and since then, our traditional festivals are no longer just non-material Cultural heritage on the list of a code, but really become the object of legal adjustment.Can believe that the state coercion of the intervention, to the protection of traditional culture in the form of law presented to the public. "Yao said.
However, a number of experts interviewed also said that in the new situation, including the Dragon Boat Festival folklore, including intangible cultural heritage how to pass down, still face some problems.
"First, that is, changes in the environment.Civilization, urbanization, information technology, is the trend of our social development, it completely changed our social and cultural ecology and lifestyle in this trend, it is the impact of traditional culture Is so great.Therefore, we need to create and cultivate a kind of old opera like Kunqu opera, how it is so advanced in science and technology so that information exchange is so fast and culture is so diverse today to attract more young audiences. New cultural ecology, which is fundamental, but it takes time, not to be completed in the short term. "The Ministry of Culture intangible cultural heritage division inspector Ma Shengde analysis said.
Hu Wenzhen, deputy director of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Cultural Research Center, believes that the realization of legal protection is the key to sustainable development of intangible cultural heritage. An important question now is how to use the law. The use of laws to protect the intangible cultural heritage, not only to implement the immaterial cultural heritage law, but also consider how to administrative law, economic law and other laws to carry out specific protection.
"The reason why the administrative law to consider, because the local government's non-heritage protection work depends largely on the executive's will, to regulate such administrative acts, it involves administrative law; In addition, non-heritage and economic ties Such as paper - cut, shadow, etc., the successor can be intangible cultural heritage of goods, flow to the market; for dance and other forms of intangible cultural heritage, the successor through the performance can also get economic benefits.Therefore, non - heritage protection also involves economic law "I think that the most important thing is to explore how to protect the intangible cultural heritage with economic law, because in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, the interests of the interests of the interests of the relevant people difficult to pass through some of the other The law can be considered to explore the economic law as the interests of all parties to the legal adjustment of the law, with economic law to adjust the intangible cultural heritage protection, the development of economic attributes.
In addition, in Massey's view, to further promote the implementation of local protection measures, "we have established a national non-heritage project evaluation system and monitoring system, which is to promote non-heritage protection work is an important measure. The national laws and regulations also provide for the protection of these projects. These plans and regulations are implemented, and an assessment system is established to self-assess the main , The release of assessment reports, to accept social supervision. After the assessment of the project, how to protect the transmission, but also the need for dynamic monitoring.